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Home > RF Made Simple
RF Made Simple
 RF Made Simple

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Glossary  |  Frequency Range Chart  |  VSWR Chart

  Glossary
                    connectors: A B C D F G H I J  L M N O P R S T U V
                    Wireless: A B C D E F H  I K L M O P R S T U V W X
 AMPS
 Advanced Mobile Phone System, an analog standard for wireless service.
  
 Accessories
 Mechanical devices, such as cable clamps, added to connector shells and other such hardware
 which is attachable to connectors to make up the total connector configuration.
 A/D
 Analog-to-digital.
  
 Alloy
 A mixture of two or more metals combined to achieve properties, such as a lower melting point or greater
 strength, that the individual metals do not possess.
      
 Ambient
 The atmospheric conditions surrounding a given item. Normally in terms of factors which influence or
 modify, such as temperature, humidity, etc.

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 Amplitude
 The magnitude of variation in a changing quantity from its zero value. The word required modification - as
 with adjectives such as peak, maximum, rms, etc. - to designate the specific amplitude in question.
 
 Back Mounted (rear mounting)
 When a connector is mounted from the inside of a panel or box with its mounting flange inside the equipment.
 
 Backplane Panels
 An interconnection panel into which PCB cards or other panels can be plugged. These panels come in a
 variety of designs ranging from a PC motherboard to individual connectors mounted in a metal frame.
 Panels lend themselves to automated wiring.
  
 Bandwidth
 The range of frequencies for which performance falls within specific limits.
 
 Base Material
 Metal from which the connector, contact or other piece part accessory is made and on which one or more
 metals or coatings may be deposited.
 
 Baonet Coupling
 A quick coupling device for plug and receptacle connectors, accomplished by rotation of a cam operating
  device designed to bring the connector halves together.
  
 B-CDMA
 Broadband - Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
 
 Bending Radius
 The mnimum permissible radius for fixed installation of the cable. This radius is mainly used in climatic
 tests. Minimum dynamic: The minimum permissible radius for flexible applications of the cable.
 
 BNC
 Coaxial connector with bayonet coupling mechanism. Available in 50 Ohm and 75 Ohm versions.
 Frequency range DC - 4 GHz (50 Ohm) and DC-1 GHz (75 Ohm), respectively. Named after Amphenol
 Engineer Carl Concelman, and Bell Labs Engineer Paul Neill.
 
 Body
 Main, or largest, portion of a connector to which other portions are attached.
 
 Braid
 Woven wire used as sheilding for insulated wires and coaxial cables. Also, a woven fibrous protective outer
 covering over a conductor or cable.
 
 Braid Coverage
 A calculated percentage which defines the completeness with which a braid or shield covers the surface of
 the underlying component.
 
 Bulkhead
 A term used to define a mounting style of connectors. Bulkhead connectors are designed to be inserted into
 a panel cutout from the rear (component side) or front side of the panel.
 
 Butted Contact
 When two conductors come together end-to-end, but do not overlap, with their axis in line.
 

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 Cable Assembly
 A completed cable and its associated hardware (e.g. connector).
 
 Capacitance
 The property of an electrical conductor (dielectric in a capacitor) that permits the storage of energy as a
 result of electrical displacement. The basic unit of capacitance is the Farad, however measurement is more
 commonly in microfarads or picofarads.
 
 Closed Entry Contact
 A specially designed connector interface which controls the entry of the male pin from damaging the female
 contact.
 
 Coaxial Cable
 A transmission line consisting of two concentric conductors insulated from each other. In its flexible form it
 consists of either a solid or stranded center conductor surrounded by a dielectric. A braid is then woven over
 the dielectric to form an outer conductor. A protective plastic covering is placed on top of the braid.
 
 Contact
 The conducting part of an interconnect at the interface between the connector and the lead on the device
 being connected.
 
 Contact Alignment
 Defines the overall radial play which contacts shall have within the insert cavity so as to permit self-
 alignment of mated contacts. Sometimes referred to as amount of contact float.
 
 Contact Cavity
 A defined hole in the connector insert or housing into which the contact must fit.
 
 Contact Durability
 The number of insertion and withdrawal cycles that a connector must be capable of withstanding while
 remaining within the performance levels of the applicable specification.
 
 Contact Engaging & Separating Force
 Force needed to either engage or separate pins and socket contacts when they are in and out of connector
 inserts. Values are generally established for maximum and minimum forces. Performance acceptance
 levels vary by specification and/or customer requirements.
 
 Contact Plating
 Deposited metal applied to the basic contact metal to provide the required contact-resistance and/or wear-
 resistance.
 
 Contact Pressure
 Force which mating surfaces exert against one another.
 
 Contact Resistance
 Measurement of electrical resistance of mated contacts when assembled in a connector under typical
 service use. Electrical resistance is determined by measuring from the rear of the electrical area of one
 contact to the rear of the mating contact (excluding both crimps) while carrying a specified test current.
 
 Contact Retention
 Defines minimum axial load in either direction which a contact must withstand while remaining firmly fixed
 in its normal position within a an insert.
 
 Convection
 The transfer of heat by movement of hot air. Often used in conjunction with infrared radiation to reduce the
 effect of IR shadowing.
 
 Coplanarity
 The distance between the lowest and highest lead when the connector is laying in its seating plane.
 
 Crimp
 Act of compressing (deforming) a connector ferrule around a cable in order to make an electrical
 connection.
 
 Crimping Dies
 A term used to identify the shaping tools that, when moved toward each other, produce a certain desirable
 shape to the barrel of the terminal or contact that has been placed between them. Crimping dies are often
 referred to as die sets or as die inserts.
 
 Crimping Termination
 Connection in which a metal sleeve is secured to a conductor by mechanically crimping the sleeve with
 pliers, presses or crimp dies.
 
 Crimping Tool
 A term commonly used to identify a hand held mechanical device or table press that is used to crimp a
 contact, terminal or spice.
 
 CTIA
 Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association.
 
 Cut-off Frequency (fc)
 The frequency, above which other than the TEM mode may occur. The transmission characteristics of
 cables above their cutoff frequency may be unstable.
 
 Cycle
 One complete sequence of values of an alternating quantity, including a rise to maximum in one direction
 and of return to zero. The number of cycles occuring in one second is called the frequency.
 

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 Dielectric
 In a coaxial cable, the insulation between inner and outer conductor. It significantly influences electrical
 characteristics such as impedance, capacitance, and velocity of propagation.
 
 Dielectric Constant
 Electrical property of a material that describes its behavior in an electric field. The dielectric constant of the
 dielectric is the most important design parameter for coaxial cables and determines dimensions, losses
 and propagation characteristics.
 
 Dielectric Loss
 In a coaxial cable, the losses caused by transformation of electromagnetic energy into heat within the
 dielectric material.
 
 Dielectric Strength
 The voltage which an insulating material can withstand before breakdown occurs.
 
 Dielecric Withstanding Voltage
 The maximum potential gradient that a dielectric material can withstand without failure.
 
 Digital
 Pertaining to the utilization of discreet integral numbers in a given base to represent all the quantities that
 occur in a problem or a calculation. It is possible to express in digital form all information stores, transferred
 or processed by a dual-state condition; e.g., onoff open-closed and true-false. (2) Compare with analog.
 
 Dust Cap
 A device attached to a connector to provide protection against dust and foreign debris.
 
 Distortion
 An unwanted change or addition to a signal or waveform when it is amplified. This definition excludes noise
 which is an extraneous signal super-imposed on the desired signal.
 
 Direct Current (DC)
 An electric current which flows in only one direction.
 

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 Ferrule
 A short tube to make solderless connections to shielded or coaxial cable (e.g. as in crimping).
 
 Flange
 A projection extending from, or around the periphery of, a connector and provided with holes to permit
 mounting the connector to a panel, or to another mating connector half.
 
 Footprint
 The pattern on the printed circuit board to which the leads on a surface mount component are mated. Also
 called a land or a pad.
 
 Frequency Modulation (fm)
 A scheme for modulating a carrier frequency in which the amplitude remains constant but the carrier
 frequency is displaced in frequency proportionally to the amplitude of the modulating signal. An fm
 broadcast is practically immune to atmospheric and manmade interference.
 
 Fretting Corrosion
 A form of accelerated oxidation that appears at the interface of contacting materials undergoing slight cyclic
 relative motion. All nonnoble metals (tin) are susceptible to some degree of fretting corrosion and will suffer
 contact resistance increases.
 
 Front Mounted (front mounting)
 A connector is front mounted when it is attached to the outside or mating side of a panel. A front mounted
 connector can only be installed or removed from the outside of the equipment.
 

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 GPS
 Global Positioning System
 
 GSM
 Global System for Mobile communication, a digital standard for wireless service for high-performance cell
 phones; European and defacto world standard.
 
 Heat Shock
 Test to determine the stability of a material when exposed to a sudden high temperature change for a short
 period of time.
 
 Heat Treating
 A process that uses precise heating and tooling of metals in order to optimize internal stresses and spring
 properties.
 
 Hermetic Seal
 Hermetically sealed connectors provide contacts bonded to the connector by glass. They permit maximum
 leakage rate of gas through the connector of 1.0 micron ft/hr at one atmosphere pressure for special
 applications.
 
 Hertz (Hz)
 International standard term for cycles per second. Named after the German physicist Heinrich R. Hertz (e.g.
 60 cycles per second is equal to 60 hertz or 60 Hz).
 

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 IEEE
 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
 
 Impedance (characteristic, Z0)
 Characteristic property of a transmission line describing the ratio between electric and magnetic fields.
 
  Impedance Match
 A condition in which the impedance of a component or circuit is equal to the internal impedance of a
 transmission line. This gives maximum transfer of energy from the source to the load, as well as minimum
 reflection and distortion.
 
  Inductance
 The property of a circuit or circuit element that opposes a change in current flow, thus causing current
 changes to lag behind voltage changes. It is measured in Henrys.
 
 Insert
 The part which holds the contacts in their proper arrangement and electrically insulates them from each
 other and from the shell.
 
  Insertion Loss
 The loss in load power due to the insertion of a component, connector or devise at some point in a RF
 transmission system. Generally expressed in decibels as the ratio of the power received at the load before
 insertion of the apparatus, to the power received at the load after insertion (for more information please refer
 to Appendix).
 
 Insulation
 A material having high resistance to the flow of electric current. Often called a dielectric in RF cable.
 
 Insulation Resistance
 The electrical resistance of the insulating material (determined under specified conditions) between any
 pair of contacts, conductors, or grounding device in various combinations.
 
 Interconnection
 Mechanically joining assemblies together to complete electrical circuits.
 
 Interface
 The two surfaces on the contact side of both halves of a multiple-contact connector which face each other
 when the connector is assembled.
 
 Interference
 An electrical or electromagnetic disturbance that causes undesirable response in electronic equipment.
 
 Intermodulation (IMD)
 A phenomenon that occurs when two or more fundamental frequencies are present in an electronic circuit.
 
  ISO
 International Standards Organization.
 

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  Jack
 A connecting device into which a plug can be inserted to make circuit connections. The jack may also have
 contacts which open or close to perform switching functions when the plug is inserted or removed. See
 also: receptacle.
 
 Jacket
  An outer non-metallic protective cover applied over an insulated wire or cable.
 
  LAN
 Local Area Network. A data communication network confined to a limited geographic area (up to 6 miles or
 about 10 kilometers).
 
 Levels of Interconnection
 Device to board or chassis. The connection point between components (tubes, transistors, IC packages)
 and the PC board or chassis. Board to motherboard or backplane. The connection point between PC
 boards or sub-circuit modules and the motherboard or a backplane Board.
 
 Backplane wiring. Connections between levels to each other and to other sub-circuits. Input/output.
 Connections for power and  signals into and out of a system. Connections may be between subassemblies
 within the same enclosure or between individual units.
 
 Line Impedance
 Impedance as measured across the terminals of a transmission line; frequently the characteristic
 impedance of the line.
 
 Low Noise Cable
 Cable specially constructed to avoid spurious electrical disturbances caused by mechanical movements.
 

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 Mating Face Seal
 A mating face seal is a seal preventing the passage of moisture or gases into or out of the connecting
 interface of two connectors in mated condition.
 
 MCX (Micro coaxial)
 Micro coaxial connector with snap on coupling mechanism. Available in 50 ohm and 75 ohm versions.
 Frequency range DC - 6 GHZ.
 
 MHV (Miniature High Voltage)
 Coaxial connector with bayonet coupling mechanism. Working voltage 2.2 kV DC.
 
 Microwave
 That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum lying between the far infrared and conventional radio frequency
 range. The microwave frequency range extends from 1 GHz to 300 GHz. Microwaves are usually used in
 point-to-point communications because they are easily concentrated into a beam.
 
 Microstrip
 A type of transmission line configuration which consists of a conductor over a parallel ground plane, and
 separately by a dielectric.
 
 MMCX
 Miniature Microcoax connector with snap on coupling mechanism. Available in 50 ohm and 75 ohm
 versions. Frequency range DC - 6 GHz.
 
 Moisture Resistance
 The ability of a material to resist absorbing moisture from the air or when immersed in water.
 
 Motherboard
 A printed board used for interconnecting arrays of plug-in electronic modules.
 
 N (Neill)
 Coaxial connector with screw type coupling mechanism. Available in 50 ohm and 75 ohm version.
 Frequency range DC - 18 GHz (50ohm) and DC-1 GHz (75 ohm), respectively.
 
 Noise
 Random electrical signals, generated by circuit components or by natural disturbances.
 
 OEM
 Original Equipment Manufacturer.
 
 Ohm
 The unit of measurement for electrical resistance. A circuit is said to have a resistance of one ohm when an
 applied emf of one volt causes a current of one ampere to flow.
 

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 Panel Seal
 A panel seal is a seal preventing the passage of moisture or gases through the gap between the mounting
 hole of the panel and the connector body of the fixed connector.
 
 Pin Contact
 A male type contact, usually designed to mate with a socket or female contact. It is normally connected to
 the "dead" side of a circuit.
 
 Plug
 In coaxial RF connectors the plug is usually the movable portion, and is usually attached to a cable or
 removable assembly. Plugs mate with receptacles, jacks, outlets, etc.
 
 Press-Fit Contact
 An electrical contact which can be pressed into a hole in an insulator, printed board (with or without plated-
 through holes), or a metal plate.
 
 Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
 An epoxy glass and metal composite on which circuits are etched and to which active, passive and
 hardware components are attached. Also called PCB or PC Board.
 
 Receptacle
 Usually the fixed or stationary half of a two-piece multiple contact connector. Also the connector half usually
 mounted on a panel and containing socket (female) contacts.
 
 RF
 Radio frequency.
 

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 Screening Effectiveness
 Ratio of the power fed into a coaxial cable to the power transmitted by the cable through the outer conductor.
 
 Screw Machine Contact
 A contact which is machined from solid bar stock.
 
 Semi-Rigid
 A cable containing a flexible inner core and a relatively inflexible sheathing.
 
 Shielding
 The metal sleeve surrounding one or more of the conductors, in a wire circuit to prevent interference,
 interaction or current leakage.
 
 SMA (Subminiature A)
 50 ohm - subminiature coaxial connector with screw type coupling mechanism. Frequency range DC-18GHz.
 
 SMB (Subminiature B)
 Subminiature coaxial connector with snap-on coupling mechanism. Frequency range DC - 4 GHz.
 
 SMC (Subminiature C)
 Subminiature coaxial connector with screw type coupling mechanism. Frequency range DC - 10 GHz.
 
  Snap on
 Used to describe the easy removal or assembly of one part to another. A connector containing socket
 (female) contacts into which a plug connector having male contacts is inserted.
 
 Solder Contact
 A contact or terminal with a cup, hollow cylinder, eyelet or hood to accept a wire for a conventional soldered
 termination.
 
 Surface Mount Technology(SMT)
 The process of assembling printed circuit boards with components soldered to the surface rather than
 fastened to printed circuit board through-holes.
 

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 TNC (Threaded Neill Concelman)
 Coaxial connector with screw type coupling mechanism. Available in 50 ohm and 75 ohm versions.
 Frequency range DC - 11 GHz (50ohm) and DC - 1 GHz (75 ohm), respectively.
 
 UG
 Symbol used to describe coaxial connectors that were made to a government specification. This
 specification is now obsolete.
 
 UHF
 Coaxial connector with screw type coupling mechanism invented in the 1930's by Amphenol engineer E.  
 Clark Quackenbush for use in the radio industry. Non-defined impedance. Frequency range DC.
 
 Ultra High Frequency (UHF)
 A Federal Communications Commission designation for the band from 300 MHz to 3,000 MGz (3GHz) on
 the radio spectrum.
 
 VSWR
 See Voltage Standing Wave Ratio and Standing Wave Ratio.
 

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 Wireless Glossary
 3G
 3G (third generation mobile telephony gives you high-speed access (up to 2mb/s). This may enable live
 pictures, camera etc. on your phone. Preceding 3G is analogue (1G). Then came GSM (2G). Currently GSM
 is now tested with GPRS(a "light version" of 3G.)
 
 AIN
 Advanced Intelligent Networks
 
 ASP (Active Server Pages)
 Serverside scripting technology to make interactive web pages. Based on VBScript.
 
 ATDMA
 Advanced Time Division Multiple Access
 
 AuC
 Authentication Center
 

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 B (Byte)
 1 byte = 8 bits. A byte is the smallest directly addressable memory unit in modern computers.
 
 Base Transceiver Station
 The network base station that talks to the mobile.
 
 Bluetooth
 Get the name from the Danish king Harald 1 Bluetooth who reigned from 940-985 A.D. .A radio
 echnology built around a new chip that makes it possible to transmit signals over short distances 
 between computers and handheld devices without the use of wires.
 
 bps
 Bits per second
 
 BS
 Base Station
 
 BSC
 Base Station Controller
 

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 Card
 A WML card must exist inside a WML deck containing one or more cards.
 
 CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
 A technology for digital transmission of radio signals between, for example, a mobile telephone and a
 base station. The system uses the same frequency to allow multiple conversations. Each conversation
 is cut into snippets and then remodulated in reassembled in the other end.
 
 CLIP
 Caller Line Identity Presentation
 
 CLIR
 Caller Line Identity Restriction
 
 Control Channel
 The channel the phone and cell base station first communicate on.
 

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  D-AMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System)
 Earlier designation of American standard for digital mobile telephony used primarily in America,
 Australia and parts of Russia and Asia.
 
 Deck
 A collection of WML cards.
 
  DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)
 A standard for cordless telephony.
 
 DTD
 Document Type Definition. A DTD defines the names and contents of all elements that are permissible
 in a certain document. A DTD is used to specify XML document structure. 
 
 Dual band
 Dual band mobile phones can work on networks operating different frequency bands. Often urban
 areas operate on 1800, while suburbs use the 900-band. This is especially useful if you travel abroad.
 Some phones are able to switch between GSM 900,1800,1900 (tri-band) allowing you full coverage in
 Europe, America and Asia.
 

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 EIR
 Equipment Identity Register
 
 ESN
 Electronic Serial Number
 

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 FDMA
 Frequency Division Multiple Access
 

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 HDML
 Handheld Markup Language. Invented by phone.com, predecessor to WML.
 
 HLR
 Home Location Register
 
  HSCSD
 (High Speed Circuit Switched Data). A circuit-linked technology for higher transmission speed by
 combining several GSM channels at the same time. This may allow speeds up to 58 bps,far faster than
 original GSM (9.6bps). For upload HSCSD is limited to half the speed. This technology is the
 predecessor of GPRS, which may deliver up to 115kbs.
 

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  IEMI
 International Equipment Mobile Identity
 
 IMEI
 The IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity)is a 15 digit Code used to identify the GSM/DCS/PCS
 phone to the network.
 
 IWF
 Interworking Function (Modem)
 

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  Ki
 Individual subscriber authentication key
 

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  LAI
 Location Area Identity
 

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 MAN
 Metropolitan Area Network. A MAN allows areas the size of cities to be connected.
 
  MB (Megabyte)
 1MB = 1024 kilobytes (KB)
 
  MO-SMS
 Mobile-Originated Short Message Service
 
 MSC
 Mobile Switching Centre - The computer that places the calls, and takes and receives data from the
 subscriber or from PSTN (Public switched Telephone Network)
 

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  OMS
 Operation and Maintenance Subsystem of the GSM network.
 

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 PAN
 Personal Area Networks.
 
 PDA
 Personal Digital Assistent. Usually a hand-held device, such as the Palm Pilot or Psion.
 
 PDC (Personal Digital Cellular)
 A Japanese standard for digital mobile telephony (800 MHz and 1500 MHz bands).
 
 PE
 Primary Exchange
 
 PHS (Personal Handyphone System)
 Digital mobile telephone system according to Japanese standard (1900Mhz).
 
 PIN
 Personal Identity Number
 
 PUC
 PIN Unblocking Code
 

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 Reverse Control Channel
 The opposite frequency, 45 MHz lower than the control channel. Used by the mobile.
 
 Roaming
 Means that your mobile phone automatically sets up communication procedures with different radio
 base stations when you are on the move. International roaming means that you can use networks other
 than your own when travelling abroad. Some phones allow for example switching between 900/1800 in
 Europe to 1900 in US.
 
 Router
 A data switch that handles connections between different networks. A router identifies the addresses
 on data passing through the switch, determines which route the transmission should take and collects
 data in "packets" which are sent to their destinations.
 

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 SET
 SET (Secure Electronic Transaction) is a system for ensuring the security of financial transactions over
 the Internet. SET, may authenticate both user and merchant in order to approve the transaction.
 
 SGML
 Standardised Generalised Markup Language. The mother of all markup languages. XML is "SGML
 light". HTML is a loose application of SGML.
 
 SMD-PP
 Short Message Delivery Point-to-Point
 
  SMS
 Short Message Service
 
 SMS (Short Message Service)
 A service for sending messages of up to 160 characters to mobile phones that use Global System for
 Mobile (GSM) communication. GSM and SMS services are primarily available in Europe.
 
 SMSC
 Short Message Service Centre
 
 SMS-IWMSC
 SMS Interworking Mobile Switching Center
 
 SS7
 Signaling System 7
 
 SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
 Protocol for managing the security of message transmissions in a network. The idea is that the
 programming for keeping your messages confidential ought to be contained in a program layer
 between an application (such as your Web browser) and the Internet’s TCP/IP layers. The current rate
 of SSL cryptation is 128.
 

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 TAP
 Telocator Alphanumeric Protocol
 
 TDMA
 Time Division Multiple Access
 

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 UA
 User Agent. Software that interprets WML, WMLScript, WTAI and other forms of code. Explorer,
 Netscape and Opera, are examples of UA´s)
 
 UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)
 The name for the third generation mobile telephone standard in Europe. Also described as 3G.
 

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 VLR
 Visitor Location Register
 
  Voice channel
 The channel you are assigned by the switch to commence the call on after the exchange of subscriber data.
 
  VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol)
 Describes the process of transmitting voice via data IP packages.
 

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  W3C
 World Wide Web Consortium.
 
  WAE
 Wireless Application Environment. WAE specifies an environment that allows operators and service
 providers to build applications and services that can reach a wide variety of different platforms. WAE is
 part of the Wireless Application Protocol.
 
  WAP
 The Wireless Application Protocol is a family of protocols allowing mobile devices to access wireless services.
 
  WAP Forum
 WAP Forum, an organization of several big internet and telecom companies, develops the WAP protocol.
 
  WAP Gateway
 WAP gateway is a two-way software. Its main function is to offload the WAP mobile device from a lot of
 computational layers.
 
  WAP Server
 A WAP server is a web server. The computer programmers use WML instead of HTML.
 
  WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access)
 Technology for wideband digital radio communications of Internet, multimedia, video and others described
 as 3G.
 
  WDP
 Wireless Datagram Protocol
 
  WML
 A programming language that use for develop a WAP application.
 
  WMLScript
 Scripting language for WAP devices. Based on JavaScript, but less powerful.
 
  WSP
 Wireless Session Protocol. Provides the upper-level application layer of WAP with a consistent interface
 for two session services, a connection-mode service that operates above a transaction layer protocol,
 and a connectionless service that operates above a secure or non-secure datagram transport service.
 
  WTLS
 Wireless Transport Layer Security. The "equivalent" to SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) widely used in the
 HTML world - although not identical in functionality.
 
  WTP
 Wireless Transaction Protocol
 
  WYSIWYG
  What You See Is What You Get.
 

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  XML
 Extensible Markup Language. W3C´s standard for Internet Markup Languages. WML is one of these
 languages.
   
 

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